How NASA’s Future Rovers Might Escape Alien Sand Traps

Driving up a sandy hill on a distant world is an effective option to get caught.

A decade in the past, NASA’s Spirit rover died on Mars after it drove right into a sand lure. For months, the mission managers on Earth despatched instructions for the rover to spin its wheels, however Spirit might by no means wriggle free. When the Martian winter arrived, Spirit fell silent without end as a result of its photo voltaic panels had been pointed away from the solar, ending a mission that had spent greater than six years aiding discoveries on the purple planet.

Engineers on the Georgia Institute of Technology have provide you with a extra elaborate choreography of motions — a mixture of swimming, strolling and rolling — that might assist future rovers keep away from an identical destiny, and even enable them to traverse tougher terrains as an alternative of driving round them.

“When you only have wheels,” stated Daniel I. Goldman, a professor of physics at Georgia Tech, “that limits your ability to go anywhere.”

The wheels of the miniature Georgia Tech rover do extra than simply roll. The researchers describe a movement through which the entrance wheels stirred up granular materials — poppy seeds, it seems, work effectively for this type of experiment — and swept it towards the rear wheels. At the identical time, the rear wheels wiggled facet to facet in a paddling-like movement, pushing the rover up a sandy slope.

With the fabric pushed towards the again, the rover was extra degree, and that helped it transfer up an incline.

The work builds on a NASA mission referred to as Resource Prospector that was to ship a rover to check ice in a polar area of the moon. The ice is predicted to be a key useful resource for a future moon colony. The water molecules would not only give people living there something to drink, but could be broken apart into oxygen and hydrogen.

NASA engineers built a prototype called RP15, which included a suspension that allowed the rover to lift a wheel and move it forward, similar to the way you lift your foot as you walk.

Dr. Goldman had already started collaborating with the NASA engineers to study the different ways RP15 might be able to move. Siddharth Shrivastava, then a high school student working in Dr. Goldman’s laboratory, led the making of a miniature version of RP15, which they called Mini Rover.

The test chamber could be tilted at different angles, and the granular properties of the poppy seeds could be altered by blowing air through them.

Mr. Shrivastava, now an undergraduate student at Georgia Tech, experimented with different motions to see what worked best. “I kind of just toyed with a lot of different gaits,” he said.

This was not the first time Dr. Goldman had tackled the problem of climbing sandy alien hills. In years past, he built a six-legged robot that looked somewhat like a rover on stilts, and another that resembled a sidewinder snake.

But the key for the earlier robots was to try to not disturb the soil, and to avoid digging a hole to get stuck in. “We found the rule seemed to be, ‘Do no harm,’” Dr. Goldman said. “Keep the material as solid as possible as long as possible.”

The Mini Rover upended this thinking, Dr. Goldman said. “You make this giant mess, particularly with this rear motor paddling gait,” he said. “And that mess, if you make it right, turns into a good fluid that you can kind of swim and crawl through, which we hadn’t expected.”

The four-wheel design, about the size of a golf cart, is largely based on Resource Prospector, but William Bluethmann, who is leading the rover development of VIPER and an author of the Science Robotics paper, said his team will be exploring some of the newer motion strategies.

The thinking is that the novel locomotion would be used only in emergencies “where you get stuck in soft soil and you need to get back on firm ground,” Dr. Bluethmann said.

There are currently no plans to incorporate the locomotion on rovers farther away, such as those exploring Mars. With a moon rover, mission controllers will have near real-time control, with a delay of several seconds between sending a command and seeing what happens.

But it still could be used for a Mars mission, if engineers are able to give the rover the smarts to react quickly on its own in the event that it started slipping or sinking into a sandy slope.

Still, Dr. Goldman thinks the technology could offer more flexibility to future rovers. “This combination of wheels and paddling and lifting, if sequenced properly, is really powerful,” he said. “No longer just wheels at the end of sticks but they are actually active appendages, and I think that’s exciting.”

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